How do we see 3D surfaces in 2D images even in very abstract cases such as the noisy pictures here? The left one appears like a corrugated surface where the one on the right seems like a flat striped surface.
In an instant, there are various visual cues that help us see the 3D world, for example binocular disparity and shading. How do these two cues interact with each other and what are the underlying neural mechanisms?
How do we judge the shape of an object if it is reflecting like a mirror? Does this object still appear to have the same shape when its reflectance changes to matte-textured?